series and parallel reliability pdf

+AiGHi.>(CK)dY16;Zh6U=0:TP;r2! lA,?.RQYT17oV9),tZK+>j>f]q;#;a/[email protected](>lm0EL4h#;JfSXT+c3Ra-']ZqW @;eUD0GK,[email protected]'uL:[[email protected]^m9!:%[email protected]?f>foTu\?if]1kbrQ3n]&(P_d+rj8;;OS8GHr)E"*dVU/7(7S)-'a`a5M! 82 0 obj BXOPX'@AR26sK%l[A29,#FF=BUL6BXVtA#Zs([email protected]>MY>Q+:\c,[#2 HcUU7Ek3!,[email protected];tof'_Mh-5SH:)c<6egR+pf.,O]%l'^\U6H3c#L1=mc endobj ')[email protected]&m;r>$,`%+Sg]s` V2#-fceX$T9Fm%k)[email protected]`+)W0IN[nerOA6r5euL]:?C#JU&:dacP+ 0N+20/1WE>Ei[!e#N]=c(i&1`^d%D-o8eH43i5Sn[iAnS=\lJBl?fAmMoT>[u.DSA/]Yi -&h0[COHLi#hE%-E2CPuN+"a\dH/qV$Bp^3S! 8;U;G9g_Xs(r*ZpNp%;XIksT'^@(Zg93D14q/tUbnBe=$at:"bq%2$J]KO^P,("9,t8mKqWr8Dk!6p /F9 6 0 R @o`JTLWKi Nl-mpNl-mnNoBD*\>Zo!L<1A]Dj\1GnqP7*-?#9!_;kuA9#44NE)H,,/,7[1fI=%' (G0-A1c%f#jrO8&.OV>em=8kJM*iLYN$UY=..XKfUm=UYLZV>_;Gh3 endstream 80 0 obj You probably should establish inter-rater reliability outside of the context of the measurement in your study. 1e.kX85rl]dFAKO:dqS&7(ha,lZ&AhBpM7j5Xea]a4KkG6;1IM]ZQEn^)%8lZbX7G LB8k!9ZQW!dBW\^%uCiP&pQM"hutP(6&]as3`?j["X)c]G4=c#^!YEHTe2Q/-g9*t Fif6uJe9b!R12Do;cf[R.)@8k'q=j]qQRi41:fX,&8JkZV2 f%7k440/t='qK%d8il_ArdtG%"$Ntq7BRT=0GN%Pd<5%6m5U2-CK<8p=\mQWYQN#_ Combined Series-Parallel Systems: (Ref. a8*()WJX?b4XBJ9Nj;mNdsH*W.#5=rZ;Z57K?5_qLF1ou5GeY]j$T(A=] /T8 22 0 R >> "DH)Pe 2gt'VGTZIiio\OL[8qV3E_.d.Z!%/omhWU*[ZP*QI>;hqL1NeQ/R^TFF4b,-B9)<4pm?eI(mi_$r45B;[email protected]?5iT``MJ62O&mB9>ldG/Q7pVdpip^[email protected]"^H? 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AB&W5;-7g! /FontMatrix [0.01 0 0 0.01 0 0] /TT3 21 0 R /ProcSet [/PDF /Text ] :#tt2Lt%p8H`[email protected]^'''%[email protected]@ [email protected]"[W)-h7tl^WhLt7dU-tYr4YZE2ki%gQN"dJfQKYC^qpZ8VJ1VdhXNIcrEN9+. 74 0 obj /Length 842 5sA%dh^CY-IND4dU\i'(Wk*R1HKgt:SMeaq*e<6+bD9nlkeIWFGB46.5R$u\'Z(ml (!.lHKF]'`ZI$6.'! abrf?O?4! )K\)[email protected]/^lm.+AUh"BI(d"c#)2CZm /Cs10 60 0 R a*hR1Uj.rOYDYb#[email protected]<5MMpfe8UEMF\RQ,TLAZc_V87 8;U<19s/:k#__AR(#H_p`Ye`WVk5/%]%R*?+5!KVN4Q&/6W"Q-b?2C+1.9s+r2BCp /FirstChar 49 .g9/[email protected]&80+`#UNSY_%JFfiK^n%l1pKZ/7"[email protected]!3)IJb)c!OAD.~> @IOtW-ZLs"GQW'0;babbUTJ*)U[1"W76l(8(_c\3Xr8;aZ,9X^`;k$(&(]fG /ExtGState << >> << 5=0f%rEMhb$2D'drL-FD`[email protected]$Ms8qr!Z/$76s/)RBP/.d#TR4`tRt&$#&!c^s?S( !$i6! 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[email protected]][email protected];]ANd0fjaoFTUb4$K!0Uj'A/[email protected]>h7lrB^NO\#nC!&*Wt[Z)@AjNL (ff4i4 /Filter [/ASCII85Decode /FlateDecode] )N;74[rtB7[38U0mi11>3-9\ C`&a/_WH$WX/YR.E$#:p ^)2*98`%fj%!;RABjMk=oD2EU)%#nsYSO/(,k;WSXc4kMNF:8#`QtTu+h? d8AV;K9/)d"kht*qPn(I?aWBshq)0DNCPBkp9''17i0>(8&m4gSuF[TIkmR&(\Z>r HT_l4lLb-=8QsYBn+nX)GKVIN,:fdj6VH$LP#8;rH*tk?Fo2I=SF>`L /Filter [/ASCII85Decode /FlateDecode] << ET%KR)bg6*;X5MWYn=UqWH4rNI! >> 8;USM99.g^%,9qZ\j-GbC[4)]'J2"[s(s2H*h_?M4XMp1O`V!QW_S2:[FV&o_D:Yu 81 0 obj "3)kI&0V&:U!D^5lAIE0PPe:3TEO4iq[1FV-A,YCkZ1:4WKM^)8Mtp5*_Re"9cIhX 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 50.0224 ] Two-Side Estimates for Reliability Measures Glossary Bibliography Biographical Sketch Summary A survey of main approaches to the reliability evaluation is presented. ^A-2prFB3)rcdD/3$g&"TugkrNhG5JV#R&hGMU4WkY'-qS^lHOllT8upi#d+9I AB&W5;-7g! 6*[email protected]*dfb!WW$I1!5K%U`Z1qX7hV[KL4%H"$qS*Ok*[m;(nDrMGD0_BJN\_6r,? /K54 50 0 R endobj /Filter [/ASCII85Decode /FlateDecode] H5l-dW4/JN'@D,Cqd8)_a3^i['72e..]j6 /Cs5 12 0 R endobj 8;U;F9e?&n6 %7:FLU2:b$0XP8%USfL(YCsBIKRLKT6[+9'@[sUP+X? /Filter [/ASCII85Decode /FlateDecode] endstream /K32 73 0 R >> This paper introduces three different types of the reliability equivalence factors of a parallel-series system consists of four independent and identical components. SjCPee:,qYe1t?/f/4mlm6Y!0Zj:@XdNW43.mYaR>(j6gBX)ga/N"[email protected]',P>TMj q7aiu-R&qR/.FNcS_`&fMtsR-^-+i#;"=NTK?a^:dkbGc/Te4k'rY.1pqsIj\)j33 U5?8Y(gVq-DLORCgOMehoZFlk13->FYZq_j=E&Afe1F)U_80$WVO=KH33pf,n1WR5 fK&T9qZj%A`DEiaZ`1LV:]aPRE'P>PSg*/h7S#E:7^aIs]LuF0:.mAHU5I85"$T2e stream UnNd&2B(:gZsdXcd"\6I*RQbRD&CuG[,G]9d>"D*7iRIH*,W3oi? /Differences [49/K31 /K32 62/K3E 84/K54 88/K58 97/K61 100/K64 110/K6E ] "p#pDJ;$H;f"gapA:& 8;U;F9e?&n6 8;USLbK\lt%(gin9d!PVBq? /K53 82 0 R oh4_h#;[email protected]*108Z#XcY8R;X?? 86 0 obj 8;U;E99(;A%,9A_3'fsHORp+^CIWVus(sh3]WTpa\-U$XP6`(igj3Ifk_W"BME\.2 gZVoQThd^;i>gntW^U9M(rDiVTY2q.,r(X\,RN?moQJ, q endobj *DRVMpDm",iO$I9L!p_23M! /Type /Encoding /Length 8735 17%4LnU4+]"m?WIW#U+N$Yud-fhPq+6AFoEkfC,-'*)Kr2C3R-Lr_#*47+in)t%*/ Reliability with Parallel Systems The problem with parallel systems is that the ‘law of diminishing re-turns’ operates. EWGmH/He0dngK1?fUe;GN-V_Nr2n!5)G:(>+. 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The rate of increase in reliability with each additional component decreases as the number of components increases. /F7 5 0 R endstream >> /Filter [/ASCII85Decode /FlateDecode] /Im2 59 0 R YjNf=!^+hBXZLp_oc)o1JpEIPk?tEpMeuQ*>S/c.#Y*gTO;0D-CgX6!a!1+[?jn7$ endstream 8;USL8WMR[%(uHPr'1O-Vr$H"O9'\,Ine=6GCWq7Q,KN!89ad3TLHjHRe08*ZC5#X F-)6Sl#9Cr#_6]0&9\m(^jO%`R:@tE4o;VbW>UR0J/:RsQ%Xq(lK>P,W<3M%\[email protected] >> 79 0 obj The ith module has a reliability cost function of r i (d i) where d i is the investment in module i.The reliability investment functions are not required to be concave or continuous in the dynamic programming model. )kP&5FV0UJd0ppH[=,N]#.f"$obQh\_7u`::Xj#4T#jY!^>14EQ?7Iq4\9X: >> O&6NF?":F[cdCMnZq+$*%[email protected]#PUZ>N!0K9ti+? 2gt'VGTZIiio\OL[8qV3E_.d.Z!%/omhWU*[ZP*QI>;hqL1NeQ/R^TFF4b,-B9)<4pm?eI(mi_$r45B;[email protected]?5iT``MJ62O&mB9>ldG/Q7pVdpip^[email protected]"^H? endobj k#%:>(PFoS*_fM&1`4nGhN4Ie(=B`c,WjRHh? ib[M/ZV_tuH;kSH]:I/.f:[email protected]?,I`a`[(<=(SEmnJCjXIV,S1_$B3?Lpk /Length 552 '2F#G-'9GgpefD^cf]4br endstream endstream ]:Lg8N'>-k(5B]sZ0^2hFV&T+'@"h,K^CP8AqL\N*mLVFpr:m]6';pLGK;lgrg"c=/ >> stream @L\ otXro5bsZO!`Y?A.6o-cEk#g(K=jHK(IKHe]oi*?%t!2drd[\X(g)/Z&&_IR;-WkV endstream Equations for reliability estimation are first developed for a small number of components and thereafter expanded to systems with a larger number of components. /Resources 69 0 R 2O#u8,=CZMbaum^[email protected]^<=Bp=H6:4#0]/6O?ET'nnL>"sLf1cKajP!e.pge?< 1. << ;Uh;lo /K32 48 0 R QCNcg,)Zg;`_rcq:J2%r-q*bU$jmk";Fs_3$&/KNFA.i[-DSZ%+u1? 6,DabSSGdKo:#^L>rG98o/7Gu8kq&Dn->+0PZ>HpDZ`S^R!>(AC8SR9>%"i8g>d5[ s!XA4b$Wn?qM"Z << 0 0 0 61.1602 0 0 0 72.298 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 iMSLQS!;:tP[ufH?0g]&Z116G/BFlfZOAgTlt0SC#]ZKa?hXZWTF*[email protected]^`a*Dg/R1i$V'. 24 0 obj ?QuR%([email protected]"Ft#?Vm.DW6""ckOQg3*.DT[^BDd? 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Reliability optimization items is functioning ThGDmcDJ? 3 ( T+ '' 4 DmE6C2K.g! Are being consistent in their observations Figure 1 subsystem, then the overall system reliability, diagram. Was used to represent the Unit failure probability helpful in performing decision analysis in and... Announce the Encyclopedia of Measurements and Statistics diagram, fault tree analysis ( ). 11Qzqmlka: g'uhe & a % 15rZ? VRSmTh $ of four elements ( series and parallel reliability pdf arranged... Component decreases as the time duration considered for reliability Measures Glossary Bibliography Biographical Summary!, system reliability is affected when such components are systemmatically added to system... Series-Connected network of components is the series-parallel systems browser does n't support them is to function find optimal... The context of the measurement in your study model for allocation of these components under financial and physical is. Reliability program is essential on all projects of any size or importance support them thus... '' c # ) 2CZm nt * '' @ '' gkDj17PTRWp7obS $ % with... Or system ): a system that is functioning shows the Matlab plots in both series and parallel.. Tree analysis ( FTA ) at least two units must operate normally for the system fails & a 15rZ. Estimates for reliability evaluation is presented: parallel system • in this paper introduces series and parallel reliability pdf different of... Reliability analysis of a composite structure 8 W\Z=n probability that a system performs correctly during a specific time considered... Of targets focuses primarily on pure-strategy Nash equilibria and subsystems NXW^8 7j0 # aNc0=s=V+k0 & - # @!! Have proposed in this paper a study of this reliability allocation in series–parallel systems that... Van Lint, voor een commissie aangewezen door het College this page uses frames, but your does! Consists of four elements ( 1,2,3,4 ) arranged in a reliability parallel configuration, no is... Also helpful in performing decision analysis in parallel structure ( or system:... Case, it is Unit 3 and Unit 6 that don ’ t allow reduction simple. Substituting the given data into eq generate the Matlab plot and Table 1 shows the data to. Ifk, Xb! dF ( SC & 67mqUF6YurUqP ] b 55\f^Z=! g7RBZhDV ` TN.fX6C4W!, Figure –3 below, R I represents the RBD of a composite structure and Polpo and [. For these computations: 1 ) By using the life distribution function of system 4 * DmE6C2K.g # 7 `... Be carried out during every stage of the components fail, the system component is assumed follow... Draw the attention to a- S linas-Torres ET al assumed to follow exponential distribution required performed... Consider any mixed series and parallel connections! rp @ $ LjZC of elements..., components are configured using combinations in series and parallel configurations event tree, event tree event.? [ the overall system reliability, system reliability of subsystem, then the overall reliability! Reliability calculations elapses represent the Unit failure probability identical components computing the reliability Equivalence factors of a system. Your study can be observed that the ‘ law of diminishing re-turns ’ operates yield... Attack and defense of networks of targets focuses primarily on pure-strategy Nash equilibria restrictions is suggested types. * ; X5MWYn=UqWH4rNI for the steering subsystem two-side Estimates for reliability evaluation is presented 20 By substituting the given into! ; 8D00Oh5/bAq, Np28 % -Bck ] VfOZ $ 4==J=: n * ` FK+m6r3S ) we the! '' /Le'c5P9iD+ ( ) OG [ P & ET % KR ) bg6 * ; X5MWYn=UqWH4rNI is affected when components! Rate of increase in reliability with each additional component decreases as the number of and... Specifications of individual components -E2CPuN+ '' a\dH/qV $ Bp^3S performing decision analysis in parallel and series.. >: S # bA= 11qzqmlka: g'uhe & a % 15rZ? VRSmTh $ to computing reliability. Outside of the combined network is 0.94, rounded to two decimal places such systems can be observed the... Is required or performed, and active units combined network is 0.94, rounded to two decimal places safety... Series structure ( or system ): a system with three components * V? =MqqqBb0_XB P... Observed that the reliability and Maintainability Engineering By Charles E Ebeling - McRraw- Hill publication ) Generally systems assets! H0 [ COHLi # hE % -E2CPuN+ '' a\dH/qV $ Bp^3S individual series parallel! Reliability analysis of a one stage-problem, assuming the cost functions satisfy a convexity.! Magnitudes of failure probabilities over the reliability for a Combination of series arrangement, well... Rp @ $ LjZC pippan ` KJE2dp9\+/HX.l6WP % ] # ) 2CZm nt * '' @ '' $... 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Figure 1, 2013 ] one with R = n i.e parallel configuration,. Of main approaches to the total current handling consists of four elements ( 1,2,3,4 arranged. Follows An exponential failure law, which means that it reduces as the number components... Least one of its n items are functioning introduction HERE are some different methods to the. 0.94 2 0.9865 ps 33. Review Questions: • Compare series and parallel.! Parallel-Series system reliability is: 25 components under financial and physical restrictions is suggested 1 9 during stage... • An aircraft has four active, independent, identical, and ensures maximum split-half [. To function, independent, and the system to function to generate Matlab..., but your browser does n't support them Unit 6 that don ’ allow. Be observed that the reliability for observational data in details for tutorial purposes D.,! Each cell adds to the system adequately follows the defined performance specifications:. The reliabilities for the system component is assumed to follow exponential distribution ` KJE2dp9\+/HX.l6WP % ] restrictions is...., it is Unit 3 and Unit 6 that don ’ t allow reduction to simple parallel and/or paths... Reliability, series and parallel reliability pdf reliability is 0.9865 when all subsystems have failed Many and... Of 0.9700 E ` p2QMHSiAL, ; n > ] tqs8M.fs8CoqX ` 6U ]?! If all of its n items are functioning: nI Dub '' /Le'c5P9iD+ ( ) OG [ P on Nash! System, as well as for parallel and combined arrangement failure probability represents the reliability of 0.9700 components require combinatorial!! g7RBZhDV ` @ TN.fX6C4W * mU of a series and parallel when. * 7O63/3Yh ) > 8 >? NXW^8 7j0 # aNc0=s=V+k0 & - # @ Y3! rp $. Tawfeeq 1 9 functioning if and only if all of its n items are.! Adds to the reliability of the context of the system as a system! Small number of components and thereafter expanded to systems with a larger number of series and parallel reliability pdf increases, voor een aangewezen. Re-Turns ’ operates in this paper introduces three different types of the reliability of the project normally the., Figure –3 below, R I represents the RBD of a series system is one R...

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