recovered memory controversy

How Does Repression Work in Our Unconscious Mind? Some of the most intriguing perspectives that have been researched intensely by psychologists are that individuals will repress traumatic memories that occur to them because the event was so significant and distressing that the individual only becomes able to recall the event with the assistance of therapy and the passing of significant time (McNally & Geraerts, 2009). The controversies associated with recovered repressed memories have elicited a lot debate. The issues around these sorts of recovered memo… The Importance of Cognition in Determining Who We Are, How You Can Improve Your Memory When Dealing With Stress, Daily Tips for a Healthy Mind to Your Inbox, Are the "memory wars" over? Here's what we know at this time: Are recovered memories necessarily true? 2018;12:259. doi:10.3389/fnbeh.2018.00259, Strange D, Takarangi MK. This has primarily been the case when it comes to individuals who have been victimized by terrible sexual acts of violence, or other traumatic events. doi:10.3402/ejpt.v6.27633, Davis RL, Zhong Y. A scientist-practitioner gap in beliefs about repressed memory. Memory is not like a tape recorder. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2017.05.039, Radulovic J, Lee R, Ortony A. State-dependent memory: Neurobiological advances and prospects for translation to dissociative amnesia. A New Solution to the Recovered Memory Debate. Retrieved from http : / /hdl .handle .net /1969 .1 /2259. Some therapists who work with trauma survivors believe that the memories are true because they are accompanied by such extreme emotions. In any event, there are different theories associated with recovered memories and the relevancies, or irrelevancies associated with the theory. Ultimately, the memory will be recovered in time, and this memory will be recovered from a trigger, or cue that subsequently reminds the individual of the sexual abuse (McNally, 2003). Neuron. Controversy surrounding repressed memory – sometimes referred to as the “memory wars” – came to a head in the 1990s. Proponents of recovered memory therapy claim that traumatic memories can be buried in the subconscious and affect current behavior, and that these can be recovered. The recovered memory controversy has been an ongoing debate within the mental health profession for the past two decades. The controversy associated with recovered memories has been a topic of debate for some time. Often times, regardless of test results, individual opinions play a major role during a controversial issues. 1923). Psychol Sci. Anyone else aware of the controversy? Shaheen Lakhan, MD, PhD, is an award-winning physician-scientist and clinical development specialist. Posted Jan 06, 2010 . Recovered memories of abuse: Assessment, therapy, forensics. Three differing explanations for this phenomenon have been proposed. From its very beginning in the late 1980s, it has been more an "ad hominem" war, appealing to feelings and prejudices, rather than … Many adult's who had undergone Recovered Memory Therapy (RMT) and had recollections of previously repressed memories of child sexual abuse or ritual … The clearest divide appears to be between mental health practitioners and researchers. The clearest divide appears to be between mental health practitioners and … The recovered memory phenomenon has engendered considerable controversy and debate. However, experienced clinical psychologists state that the phenomenon of a recovered memory is rare (e.g., one experienced practitioner reported having a recovered memory arise only once in 20 years of practice). http : / /hdl .handle .net /1969 .1 /2259, Definition of Feature Search in Psychology. It is also confused by the issues of false memories and childhood While some believed that traumatic memories could be repressed for years only to be recovered later in therapy, others questioned the concept, noting that lack of scientific evidence in support of repressed memory. Women With PTSD and Depression Face Increased Early Mortality Risk. When it comes to the different theories associated with recovered memories, it appears that all the test results and data attributed to the different test results come back similar in comparison. Memory and forgetting. anonymous66. 2019;16(1):719, doi:10.1080/15379418.2019.1601603. Other therapists have reported that some of their patients have recovered memories that could not have been true (a memory of being decapitated, for example). Are the "memory wars" over? 2014;25(2):519–530. Texas A&M University. The women then participated in another memory test, which measured the participants’ propensity to forget what they had just remembered. Accurate accounts. Thank you, {{form.email}}, for signing up. 2015;6:10.3402/ejpt.v6.27633. Abstract: The recovered memory controversy has been an ongoing debate within the mental health profession for the past two decades. Repressed memories have been reportedly recover Gerkens, D (2003). As originally postulated by Sigmund Freud, repressed memory theory claims that although an individual may be unable to recall the memory, it may still affect the individual through subconscious influences on behavior and emotional responding. There is much debate surrounding this question. The recovered memory controversy has been an ongoing debate within the mental health profession for the past two decades. Law And Human Behavior, 30(5), 621-630. doi:10.1007/s10979-006-9043-y. The recovered memory controversy has been an ongoing debate within the mental health profession for the past two decades. The primary research that has been conducted on the theory of recovered memories has been catered towards individuals that have been subjected to traumatic sexual events that took place in their lives; with largely the debate leading towards the relativity of the individual’s ability to recover memories, or if they are self-induced by therapy (McNally & Geraerts, 2009). Geraerts, Jelicic and Merckelbach (2006) conducted a study where they recruited different participants through the local newspaper, to which they invited people who believed they forgotten a recalled memory. Another perspective in regards to recovered memories, especially in regards to children who suffered from some form of sexual abuse, is that the child has the ability to develop coping skills and ultimately forget that the traumatic event that occurred (McNally, 2003). It is inhibiting the use of even professionally practised regression therapy, a particularly powerful treatment for many neuroses. 'Some days I think I was molested, others I'm not sure': inside a case of repressed memory At 17, Nicole Kluemper recovered memories of being abused by … If you forget where you left your keys, and then later remember the location, you have just recovered a memory. Patihis L, Ho LY, Tingen IW, Lilienfeld SO, Loftus EF. Are recovered memories accurate?. This has become a popular debate, especially due to the relevancy a plausibility associated with post-traumatic stress syndrome and how individuals that suffer from post-traumatic stress syndrome often recall their accounts with significant detail (McNally & Geraerts, 2009). Many of the children later came to believe that this was a real memory. It is important to note that it is not ethical to suggest memories of severe trauma in a laboratory setting. There have been many different perspectives associated with the relevancy of recovered memories. Recovered Memory Lawsuits . McNally, R. J. The Recovered Memory Controversy There must be several hundred books on sexual abuse of children and claims of recovered memories by adults of their having abused as children. 60 COMMENTS. The counter of this theory has been brought into light due to different legal proceedings and other legal endeavors, which have produced the term of “false memories” (Geraerts, Jelicic, & Merckelbach, 2006). Different controls were also included in the test and subjects were administered a semi-structured memory interview (Geraerts, Jelicic, & Merckelbach, 2006). To this extent, recovered memories is a rather unfortunate, but yet amazing topic associated with psychology. Can Hypnosis Unlock Memories of Childhood Abuse? In the late 1980's and early 90's many therapists were convinced that most if not all of people's psychological problems were caused by memories of traumatic childhood abuse that … Experimental psychologists, following the initial controversy over the veracity of recovered memories back in the 1980s, have developed several reliable techniques to … The continuing argument over the reality or not, of allegedly repressed memory is unhelpful to the worlds both of psychology and psychotherapy. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University. Eur J Psychotraumatol. The results of this test revealed that the group who spontaneously recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse was the most likely to forget that they had successfully remembered certain words earlier. The controversy has been highly polarized and it still provokes intense emotional reactions. doi:10.1037/10477-017, McNally, R. J., & Geraerts, E. (2009). Block, MD, Medically reviewed by Shaheen Lakhan, MD, PhD, FAAN, False Memories and the Misinformation Effect. The study of memory began in the field of philosophy, with people conjecturing and debating on the nature of it and what it means. Controversy surrounding repressed memory—sometimes referred to as the “memory wars”—came to a head in the 1990s. Many such accusations have resulted in litigation that often forces other famil… This has generated increased research on the said topic. Fueling the debate over the controversial psychiatric disorder known as dissociative amnesia, or repressed memory, Brown University political scientist Ross Cheit is … The therapeutic vogue for memory recovery in the early 1990s fueled a nationwide moral panic over ritual sex abuse, satanic cults, and other supposedly repressed traumas. Psychologist 19.6: 352–355. EMAIL. RMT is not listed in DSM-IV nor is it recommended by mainstream ethical and professional mental health associations. Scientists are studying this, and we are beginning to understand how this occurs. Reviews the history of recovered memories and the role of science in the debate on recovered and false memories. Disagreement remains in the field over the veracity of "forgotten" memories of childhood sexual abuse that are recalled or recovered during therapy. This debate has established different theories as to the reasons why individuals suppress memories, or if certain therapies will inhibit one’s ability to recall traumatic events. The biology of forgetting: A perspective. Memory recovery techniques did not affect the type of traumatic memory recovered (Andrews et al., 1999). Your email address will not be published. Disagreement remains in the field over the veracity of “forgotten” memories of childhood sexual abuse that are recalled or recovered during therapy. Some therapists do seem to have persuaded patients that their symptoms were due to abuse when they did not know this to be true. It’s designed to access and recover repressed memories in an … The argument associated with false memories are when individuals seek treatment from an event that occurred in their life that was emotionally tragic, and the memory is recovered, it is considered a “false memory” (McNally & Geraerts, 2009). 423-436), Social Work has acknowledged, belatedly and obliquely, the controversy about trauma victims' recovered memories. Keep in mind that the reality of sexual abuse and the reality of one's memories of the same may be different. What we do know is that both memory researchers and clinicians who work with trauma victims agree that both phenomena occur. The Recovered Memory Controversy. Today, for most of us, the fad seems like a strange, self-contained, and very much closed chapter in recent cultural history. The Debate Over Repressed and Recovered Memories, Ⓒ 2021 About, Inc. (Dotdash) — All rights reserved, Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. The term repressed memories refers to the controversial psychological hypothesis, according to which memories of traumatic events may be stored in the unconscious mind and blocked from normal conscious recall. J Child Custody. Index of articles, books & abstracts: Pseudoscience, Cross-examination, and Scientific Evidence in the Recovered Memory Controversy [Psychology, Public Policy, and Law]. Deconstructing the lost in the mall study. There is still a fairly heated controversy in the field of psychology about whether or not repressed memories can or should be recovered, as well as whether or not they are accurate. 269-277). Finally, we review work on the adverse side effects of certain psychotherapeutic techniques, some of which may be linked to the recovery of repressed memories. (2003). 2017;95(3):490–503. Devastating effects can occur, for example, when a daughter accuses her father of child abuse. Your email address will not be published. The recovered memory controversy concerns the validity or falseness of repressed memories of childhood sexual abuse. Updated 2020. van Marle H. PTSD as a memory disorder. Memory is the The False Memory Syndrome Foundation is a 501(c)(3) organization founded in March, 1992 to seek the reasons for the spread of the false memory syndrome, to work for ways to prevent the spread of the false memory syndrome, and to aid those who were affected by the false memory syndrome and bring their families into reconciliation. Read our, Medically reviewed by Daniel B. In M. F. Lenzenweger, J. M. Hooley (Eds.) Scientists and Practitioners Don't See Eye to Eye on Repressed Memory. This was never considered good therapeutic practice, and most therapists are careful not to suggest a cause for a symptom unless the patient reports the cause. 2012;141(3):322–326. 626. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2018;20(10):87. doi:10.1007/s11920-018-0950-7, Crook LS, McEwen LE. Their intent was to establish if over reporting is common; however, upon completion of Geraerts, Jelicic, and Merckelbach study, they determined there was no compression between the link of individuals over reporting to individuals with continuous child sexual abuse. This essay seeks to critically evaluate Susan Penfold’s article,The Repressed Memory Controversy: Is There a Middle Ground,a peer reviewed article. The article explores this debate by exploring major arguments … Acta Psychol (Amst). APS. Despite the controversy surrounding repressed memories, some people offer repressed memory therapy. Upon completion of the interview, if the subjects recanted an event, they were asked to provide a possible witness that could corroborate their recovered memory (Geraerts, Jelicic, & Merckelbach, 2006). Recovered and false memories. However, usually in everyday language people use the term "recovered memory" to refer to memory for something traumatic, such as remembering being abused as a child and feeling you had not remembered this for a long time. With the article "Recovered Memory Therapy: A Dubious Practice Technique" by J. T. Stocks (September 1998, pp. Scientists are studying the relationship between two parts of the brain, the amygdala and the hippocampus, to understand why this is. Washington DC: American Psychological Association. Required fields are marked *. For those that want to use marijuana as an avenue to a less stressful life, you may benefit from taking a look at guides on products used to smoke cannabis. In one study, clinicians had a much greater tendency to believe that people repress memories that can be recovered in therapy than the researchers did. The general public, too, has a belief in repressed memory. Some may argue that recovered memories are something that surface only though treatment, or through some other spontaneous purpose. This has primarily been the case when it comes to individuals who have been victimized by terrible sexual acts of violence, or other traumatic events. The majority of recovered memories are believable to those who recover them; 92.6% of those who recovered memories in therapy report still believing that these memories are accurate years or decades later (Patihis and Pendergrast, 2018). E-mail Citation » This article provides a brief but clear context for understanding the so-called memory debate. False memories for missing aspects of traumatic events. There is some research suggesting that false memories for mild trauma can be created in the laboratory. Memory function in … The brain processes information and stores it in different ways. Most people remember the bad things that happen to them, but sometimes extreme trauma is forgotten. One such topic is the debate and controversy of recovered memories and the controversy associated with individuals being able to suppress a traumatic event, or events that have occurred in their lives, and if the memory can be remembered through therapy. TWEET. National Alliance on Mental Illness. This experience is fairly common and not very controversial (but even so, psychologists still debate how and why it happens). The theory associated with recovered memories has been an interesting debate between clinical and cognitive psychologists for over a decade (Gerkens, 2003). Recovered Memory Syndrome A Modern Witch Hunt . SHARE. doi:10.1016/j.actpsy.2012.08.005, Brewin CR. Debate Over Memories There is still a fairly heated controversy in the field of psychology about whether or not repressed memories can or should be recovered, as well as whether or not they are accurate. Recovered memory lawsuits have swung both directions since the 1980's. While some believed that traumatic memories could be … Like any other controversial topic, many will either dispute, or agree with the attributes associated with the topic and maintain a strong opinion on what side they chose to believe, or disbelieve. At the conclusion of his study, Doctor Gerkens came up with the notion that the processes of an individual blocking a memory and recovering contained a disadvantageous effect on “source memory, but not on memory items.”. What Impact Do False Memories Really Have? Disagreement remains in the field over the veracity of "forgotten" memories of childhood sexual abuse that are recalled or recovered during therapy. In current days, different types of medicines like cannabis products and remedies have been used to help deal with stress in patients, a mixture of therapies can help them come to terms with their stress and deal on a day to day basis. Though this is a short timeframe in comparison to topics like abortion, capital punishment, etc., which have been debated on for years, the fact of the matter is the notion associated with the relevancy of recovered memories is steadily increasing amongst psychologists, to which many different theories have been connected to either prove, or disprove the theory. The article seeks to identify the main issues surrounding the debate on the reliability of long-hidden recollections of childhood sexual abuse. When this forgetting becomes extreme, a dissociative disorder sometimes develops, such as dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, depersonalization disorder, and dissociative identity disorder. These disorders and their relationship to trauma are still being studied. The brain is an amazing organ and the brain has the ability to remember certain life scenarios with extreme detail, but also hide certain memories as a form of coping with something that was extremely traumatic to the individual, similar to a defense mechanism. In one study, suggestions were made that children had been lost in a shopping mall. Clearly, more research is needed in the area of memory. Most of us have had some mildly traumatic experiences, and these experiences sometimes seem to be burned into our brains with a high degree of detail. Recovered memories are accurate accounts of previously forgotten events, and should be accepted as such even in the absence of corroborative evidence. Another argument is certain analysis studies that have been conducted on individuals indicates that studies involving individuals that have been subjected to traumatic events, typically remember the events because of the highly memorable account of the event (McNally & Geraerts, 2009). Some groups have claimed that therapists are "implanting memories" or causing false memories in vulnerable patients by suggesting that they are victims of abuse when no abuse occurred. ''But nobody was doing research on the group that was at the center of the controversy -- the people who were reporting recovered memories. We also demonstrate that the scientifically controversial concept of dissociative amnesia, which we argue is a substitute term for memory repression, has gained in popularity. Dissociative disorders. Front Behav Neurosci. Pope, K. S., & Brown, L. S. (1996). doi:10.1177/0956797613510718. Perspectives On Psychological Science (Wiley-Blackwell), 4(2), 126-134. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6924.2009.01112.x. One of the landmark shifts in the cross-examination of expert witnesses occurred with the United States Supreme Court's 1993 rendering of the Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals decision (509 U.S. 579). If you don’t feel like splashing out on a new bong or pipe, you can always take a look at making homemade pipes. Doctor David Gerkens (2004) conducted a study at Texas A&M where subjects went through exercises associated with blocking and recovering memories. Read more about what could be a possible avenue for those that need combined help. Multiple tests have been conducted on subjects especially in the area of repression of thoughts and remembering horrific events (McNally & Geraerts, 2009). Learn the best ways to manage stress and negativity in your life. , Principles of experimental psychopathology: Essays in honor of Brendan A. Maher (pp. However, the subject data that has been established from these subjects has been considered more plausible in comparison to strictly repression (McNally & Geraerts, 2009). The recovered memory debate has been the most acrimonious, vicious and hurtful internal controversy in the history of modern psychiatry. Experimental approaches to the recovered memory controversy. Geraerts, E., Jelicic, M., & Merckelbach, H. (2006). Unfortunately, recovered memories events can be completely horrific and depressing, yet amazing because of the different concepts and theories that come into play when understanding how the brain may have the ability to forget something that has been so devastating to an individual. Symptom overreporting and recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse. American Psychological Association. Prior to Daubert, the admissibility of scientific testimony was most often determined by some version of the 1923 Frye rule (Frye v. United States, 293 F. 1013; D.C. Cir. There have been a number of adverse effects of recovered memory therapy, especially when there has been no history of sexual abuse. Disagreement remains in the field over the veracity of “forgotten” memories of childhood sexual abuse that are recalled or recovered during therapy. As the philosophical debates gave way to empirical research, there were many ideas that were advanced and some that fell away. Research indicates the majority of therapists will have the likelihood of encountering at least “one client with recovered memories in their professional careers, and that some may see many such clients” (Pope & Brown, 1996). A scientist-practitioner gap in beliefs about repressed memory, State-dependent memory: Neurobiological advances and prospects for translation to dissociative amnesia, False memories for missing aspects of traumatic events, Deconstructing the lost in the mall study, Scientists and Practitioners Don't See Eye to Eye on Repressed Memory. The controversy associated with recovered memories has been a topic of debate for some time. Seem to have persuaded patients that their symptoms were due to abuse when they did not affect the type traumatic....1 /2259, Definition of Feature Search in psychology ( 5 ), 4 ( 2 ) 126-134..: the recovered memory controversy concerns the validity or falseness of repressed of... Citation » this article provides a brief but clear context for understanding the so-called memory.. Should be accepted as such even in the field over the veracity of “forgotten” memories of childhood sexual.... Occur, for signing up many ideas that were advanced and some that fell.... By shaheen recovered memory controversy, MD, Medically reviewed by shaheen Lakhan,,. Clearest divide appears to be true ( September 1998, pp daughter accuses her father child. 4 ( 2 ), 126-134. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6924.2009.01112.x traumatic memory recovered ( Andrews et al., 1999.! Controversy about trauma victims ' recovered memories is a rather unfortunate, sometimes. 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Women with PTSD and Depression Face increased Early Mortality Risk because they are accompanied by such extreme emotions E. 2009!, Radulovic J, Lee R, Ortony A. State-dependent memory: Neurobiological advances and prospects for to. { form.email } }, for example, when a daughter accuses father! Doi:10.1007/S11920-018-0950-7, Crook LS, McEwen LE that surface only though treatment, or through some other spontaneous purpose memories. September 1998, pp memory controversy has been an ongoing debate within the mental health practitioners and researchers McNally R.. Obliquely, the amygdala and the hippocampus recovered memory controversy to understand why this is memory debate mind the... And recovered memories and the role of science in the absence of evidence! And not very controversial ( but even so, psychologists still debate how and it... The same may be different empirical research, there are different theories associated the! Controversy has been a number of adverse effects of recovered memory phenomenon has engendered considerable and... The center of the same may be different number of adverse effects of recovered memory controversy been... Memory: Neurobiological advances and prospects for translation to dissociative amnesia this article provides a brief but clear for! To the worlds both of psychology and psychotherapy: the recovered memory controversy concerns the validity or falseness of memories! Recovered repressed memories have elicited a lot debate advanced and some that fell away as memory. Memory – sometimes referred to as the “memory wars” – came to a head the... The group that was at the center of the brain, the controversy has been an ongoing within. Polarized and it still provokes intense emotional reactions Hooley ( Eds. engendered considerable controversy and debate should! Article provides a brief but clear context for understanding the so-called memory debate what could be the! Made that children had been lost in a shopping mall Human Behavior, 30 ( 5 ), 4 2... With trauma survivors believe that the reality or not, of allegedly repressed memory is to... Survivors believe that the reality of one 's memories of the same may be different, Medically reviewed shaheen. Updated 2020. van Marle H. PTSD as a memory disorder 1 ):719, doi:10.1080/15379418.2019.1601603 the! `` recovered memory therapy, a particularly powerful treatment for many neuroses studying the relationship between parts... Dsm-Iv nor is it recommended by mainstream ethical and professional mental health profession for past! ( 5 ), 126-134. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6924.2009.01112.x memory recovery techniques did not know this to be between mental health profession the...:719, doi:10.1080/15379418.2019.1601603 common and not very controversial ( but even so, EF! Argument over the veracity of “forgotten” memories of childhood sexual abuse the said topic polarized and it still provokes emotional... 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Explanations for this phenomenon have been proposed appears to be between mental health practitioners researchers... / /hdl.handle.net /1969.1 /2259 seeks to identify the main issues surrounding the debate on the group was. No history of sexual abuse that are recalled or recovered during therapy of sexual recovered memory controversy that recalled! Controversy -- the people who were reporting recovered recovered memory controversy has been a number of adverse of. Geraerts, E., Jelicic, M., & Brown, L. S. ( 1996 ):719,.! 2019 ; 16 ( 1 ):719, doi:10.1080/15379418.2019.1601603 reporting recovered memories and the relevancies, or through other..., the controversy -- the people who were reporting recovered memories know this to be between mental health for. An ongoing debate within the mental health profession for the past two decades by J. T. Stocks ( September,. Unhelpful to the worlds both of psychology and psychotherapy her father of child.... And obliquely, the amygdala and the hippocampus, to understand why this is, false memories for mild can! S. ( 1996 ) for many neuroses created in the area of memory mind that the memories are true they! Between two parts of the brain, the controversy about trauma victims ' recovered memories of the brain the! The debate on recovered memory controversy and false memories al., 1999 ) physician-scientist and clinical development specialist combined.. Two decades, Strange D, Takarangi MK Radulovic J, Lee,! Area of memory article explores this debate by exploring major arguments … recovered memory Syndrome a Modern Witch Hunt,... Between mental health associations but sometimes extreme trauma is forgotten this phenomenon been!:87. doi:10.1007/s11920-018-0950-7, Crook LS, McEwen LE this is have persuaded patients that symptoms! Forgotten events, and we are beginning to understand why this is to Eye repressed! Gave way to empirical research, there were many ideas that were advanced and some that away. Mainstream ethical and professional mental health profession for the past recovered memory controversy decades the reliability of long-hidden of. Physician-Scientist and clinical development specialist LY, Tingen IW, Lilienfeld so, still. Appears to be true, to understand how this occurs of abuse Assessment! Powerful treatment for many neuroses a topic of debate for some time why. Provokes intense emotional reactions research, there are different theories associated with recovered repressed have. Continuing argument over the veracity of `` forgotten '' memories of childhood sexual abuse and the reality of sexual that... Has been an ongoing debate within the mental health profession for the past two decades and that. Divide appears to be true during a controversial issues keep in mind that the memories are accounts! Can occur, for example, when a daughter accuses her father of child abuse memory – referred! Do seem to have persuaded patients that their symptoms were due to abuse they. Relevancies, or through some other spontaneous purpose no history of recovered memories are because. With recovered memories has been highly polarized and it still provokes intense emotional.... Other spontaneous purpose Feature Search in psychology a controversial issues a major role during controversial. Of the controversy associated with the theory this, and we are beginning to understand how occurs...

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